The processing of the children with cerebral tumor should be different if is in primary phase or in metastasis, since different mutations in one they are produced and another stadium of the illness, as collects today the magazine ‘Nature’.
An international team of scientists discovered that the medulloblastoma, the most frequent harmful cerebral tumor in children, has different genetic mutations when is a matter of a primary tumor or when already has extended to other parts of the body.
The smaller they affected by this cancer, that arises in the cerebellum and is expanded quickly to the spinal cord and the brain, they receive currently the same so much processing if the tumor is primary as if already is in metastasis.
Although the 30 percent of the children already suffers metastasis when they are diagnosed for the first time, its processing is determined only from the genetic scoreboards found in the main tumor.
This themselves due to that up to now the oncologists had considered that the cells of the medulloblastoma primary were very similar or even identical to those of a cancer in phase of metastasis.
Nevertheless, this study -carried out by the British University of Newcastle and the Hospital for Sick Children of Toronto (Canada)- sample now that different genetic mutations in the two phases of the tumor are produced, what suggests that each one of them should receive different processing.
The error at the moment of to detect the differences between these two stadiums of the tumor could be mining the rate of survival of the current therapies, that at present is 60 percent, explained the neurosurgeon and leader of the investigation, Michael D. Taylor, of the Canadian team.
This find “explains why some children do not experience any improvement with the processing for their meduloblastoma. All we thought that the therapies based on the analyses of the primary tumor would have an impact in all the weavings affected by the illness”, added Taylor.
In the mice, the scientists detected that both types of tumors seemed to occupy two “compartments” genetic different, fruit of mutations in sequences of different DNA that took place after the metastasis.
They discovered so, in general, so much the primary tumors as the metastasis shared only some few genetic mutations, and that some only they been present in one of the phases of the tumor. This signifies that if the cancer extends, the metastasis they are very similar genetically among itself, but very different from the tumor that originated them.
The authors observed these same differences in humans, upon studying all the cases of this cancer that passed in the last decade by the Hospital for Sick Children of Toronto.
The discovery requires now a deeper investigation since the team should identify still which of those genes they mutate with sufficient frequency in the humans as so that they serve of diana of future therapies.
Nevertheless, Taylor optimist was shown that this find can increase the rate of survival and to diminish the secondary effects of the current conventional processing.
At this time, the standard therapy for the children that suffer this tumor consists of radiation above all the brain and the spinal cord, along with chemotherapy, what damages the development of its nervous system.